Difference between Objectives, Targets and Goals

This post explains the difference between a mission, primary objective, a secondary objective, a target and a goal in simple, easily remembered terms. 

Trying to understand the difference between these words sounds like a complicated grammatical conundrum, but it isn’t.

Mission – the purpose
Primary Objective – what you hope to achieve to support your mission
Secondary Objective – objectives established to support the Primary Objective
Target      – an indicator established to determine how successfully you are achieving an objective.
Goal         – an indicator established to determine whether you have achieved your objective.

Remember:
Goals tend to be two state only – achieved or not achieved – a near miss in soccer is still a miss.
Targets are more measurement based.  When you hit a target in archery you achieve different scores depending on your accuracy.

The below shows the hierarchy of mission, objectives, targets and goals

Objectives Targets and Goals heirarchy

Objectives Targets and Goals heirachy

To simplify let’s look at a silly example.

  • Mission
    To be happy
  • Primary Objective
    To get married, have children and settle down (to support the mission)
  • Secondary Objective:
    To impress a damsel with your archery skills (one way you can achieve your Primary Objective)
  • Target:
    To hit the centre of the apple on the head of a knave (a measure of the degree of success)
  • Goal:
    To get your arrow in the apple without injuring the knave (a logical indicator of success)

How does that relate to my work situation I hear you ask? Let’s use another example.

Mission: Providing high quality widgets to the beer industry
Primary Objective: To keep the company profitable and healthy
Secondary Objectives (supporting the primary objective) :
1) To reduce the running costs of the company.
2.) To achieve management system certification so that we are able to tender on larger contracts.
Target (for aim 1.): 8% increase in profits year on year
Goal (for aim 2.): System Certification achieved before year end.
Secondary Objectives, Targets and Goals should all contribute to achieving the primary objective.  You can be close to your target, but close to a goal has the same effect as being a mile away.

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